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Preparation Outline

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There is nothing more valuable in the world of essay writing than KNOWING YOUR STUFF! Then comes narrowing your knowledge down to what your thesis is and why it is valid. Here is an Outline to be used as a tool to prepare for writing your next essay.

I. Thesis: What is your essay's main point.

II. Title: Create a title, so you have something to call your essay. Rewrite the actual Title after the essay is complete.

III. Audience:
a. Identify who your readers will be and why your thesis is important to them.
b. Identify your readers point of view.
c. Identify the education level of your readers.
d. Identify the triggers that will motivate your readers. Will they respond to logic, emotion, both or something else.
e. Identify who the reader will respond to.

IV. Strategy:
a. Identify who you "are" as "the writer." What image or persona do you want to project?
b. Identify the literary devices that will reach your reader.

V. Listing:
a. List three reasons your thesis is true and why.
b. Provide sources of information.

VI. Motivation:
Identify what you want the reader to do after reading the essay.


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Editing

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Hook Strategy

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Hooking readers into your essay is like setting a complete stage for a play, movie, or music video. The general strategy is to take your "Purpose Statement" (review "Create Working Thesis" button below) and present it in a thought-provoking and complete style. Specifically, use a complex sentence or more, comprised of relevant 5Ws, to set up the thesis statement to follow. You have creative license in developing your hook! Consider the following


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Thesis

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You must know the thesis of your essay before writing begins! That's true, generally. So if you've done your prewriting then introducing the topic should be relatively easy. But what if there's no thesis at this point? What if, for example, you know the "purpose" and want to use RoughDraftApp help organize your thoughts as you write. That is entirely possible. Heck, skip all that prewriting stuff and start writing! See what happens.

So, if there is no thesis then just "make one up" and get started. It might sound crazy, but it's not. Inspiration comes from different places and writing the hook (setting the stage) will inspire you to write just as it will encourage the reader to "read."

Go for it and see what happens. (hint: click on the 5Ws button below)


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5Ws of Hook

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If you're smart enough to write using a smartphone, tablet, or computer then you must have heard about the Five Ws (5Ws) of writing. Tell the reader Who, What, When, Where, and Why and you can't go wrong. Don't you just love simple generalities?

Hooking readers into your essay is like setting a complete stage for a play, movie, or music video. The 5Ws are verbal props used to stage the opening scene of your essay. The trick is to use the right 5Ws in the right place. A hook is a perfect place for the 5Ws because your creativity will be tested as you describe the scene (circumstances) setting up the thesis.

Here is an example of what you would need to know to create a great hook:
"Who" are the people affected by the thesis.
"What" is being done to cause a thesis in the first place (not because you were asked to write it)
"When" the thesis is needed
"Where" is the thesis going to apply
"Why" the thesis is important.

Example 1
Text: Nick is sitting still in front of his home computer staring at a bright white page from the latest version of Google Docs. "Save the World" from Swedish House Mafia is blocking out all possible sound coming from anywhere else, he doesn't hear it. His US History essay is due tomorrow, he has a ton of notes, he can't type a word. Nick, like just about every other kid in school, needs help to save his world.
Who: Nick, every other kid in school
What: needs help writing an essay,
Where: in his room, school
When: today and in the future
Why: to save his world (future)
Thesis: RoughDraftApp is valuable writing tool.

Example 2
Text: Students across the world need help learning to write effective essays if they are going to be successful in life.
Who: students
What: need help learning to write effectively
Where: across the world
When: present time is implied because the future is indicated by "if they are going to be successful"
Why: to be successful in life
Thesis: RoughDraftApp is valuable writing tool.

Example 3
Text: It is amazing to see what one gets after typing in the keywords "essay help" using Google Search. The results include actual "pay us, and we will write the essay for you sites." It is completely legal to hire someone to write for you. Ghostwriting, being aptly named, is a valuable service with many legitimate uses; but, it has a dark side.
Who: Anyone
What: will find Ghostwriting services
When: Present tense
Where: on the Internet
Why: looking for essay help
Thesis: The Ghostwriting Industry needs to be regulated.


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Figurative Language

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If you want to use figurative language to show creativity then the hook is the place. But, and, I mean BUT, be careful to use just the right amount for your audience. The chances are that figurative speech will bore the reader when over-used. Academic and business essays are all about "facts."

Metaphors, a figure of speech using a comparison to state a fact or draw a verbal picture, are perfect for writing hooks. Similes and idiomatic expressions (language peculiar to a group of people) may work. Still, metaphors provide the best opportunity to successfully include figurative language.

Example 1 is one giant metaphor made up of a bunch of other metaphors, and other figures of speech. Probably not suitable for an academic or business essay. The next example is more direct. Most hooks are in between these polar opposites.

Example 1 Theatrical hook:
Nick is sitting still in front of his home computer staring at a bright white page from the latest version of Google Docs. "Save the World" from Swedish House Mafia is blocking out all possible sound coming from anywhere else, he doesn't hear it. His US History essay is due tomorrow, he has a ton of notes, he can't type a word. Nick, and just about every other kid in school needs help to save his world.

Example 2 "To the Point" hook:
Students worldwide, needing to write an essay, sit frozen in front of computer screens searching for words, or new tools, that will lead to effective written communication skills.


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Sentence Types

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A hook is a great place for your complex sentences (sentences containing one or more dependent clauses and an independent clause). There are two reasons for that. The first is you need to get the 5Ws in there. About the only place to find anything close to a simple sentence featuring 5Ws is the lead of a news article. And even if you could, do not go through that much trouble for an essay hook. The second is that the thesis needs to be short and to point.

The hook needs to enhance the importance of the thesis, and a complex sentence will make the simple sentence of the thesis maximize impact. The thesis must be completely clear, obvious, unmistakable, and then virtually scream louder than any other sentence. Simple sentences are the most powerful. That power only comes from being surrounded by complex sentences. The hook must be a complex sentence.


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Thesis Strategy

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Thesis must be clear and to the point. The essay will be easier to write, read, and brag about!

1. Clearly state the "point" of the essay!
2. Use a simple sentence!

The thesis is the single most important sentence of any essay. It must be a simple sentence surrounded by complex sentences. You might be tempted to change your thesis away from a single sentence to make it "fit" into your introductory paragraph or because you saw someone else do it. Don't YOU do it!

To maximize reader recognition of the thesis, take the time to craft the hook and listing using complex sentences that fit around your single sentence statement. Then dedicate the rest of the essay to proving your crystal clear thesis is valid!


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Working Thesis

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Create a Working Thesis
A working thesis may or may not be your exact thesis statement as written in the final essay. The goal is to present your thesis in a simple sentence; however, you may change a few words depending on the essay style. That said, it is probably best to start by saying "This is my thesis, and I'm sticking to it." After all, by working through the following steps, you will have the facts to back you.

Step 1: Create Purpose Statement
Write a sentence or two stating your topic. Do not state conclusions.
I will examine (research) "this topic."
I will examine (research) __________.
I will examine (research) "Electric Cars."
I will analyze "this about the topic."
I will analyze "____________________.
I will analyze "environmental effects of battery disposal."

Step 2: Research
Discover why the topic is essay worthy (interest, controversy, complication, etc.) Look for patterns, data (statistics) repeated in multiple sources, facts favoring a clear view (opinion), and expert opinion so important that is must be considered. Keep at it until you develop a Trial Thesis.

Step 3: Write Trial Thesis
Decide on a thesis resulting from the research. Write it using a simple sentence.

Step 4: Test
Test your ability to prove the thesis true. Ask the questions:
"Is this thesis true?"
"What are three reasons (or more), either individually or collectively, proving the thesis is valid (true)?"
"Are these reasons based on authoritative (believable) sources?"
"Will this thesis overcome challenges (win an argument)?"

Step 5: Decide
Answering "Yes" to ALL these questions and you have a Working Thesis, so move on. Start writing the hook!

Answering "No" to ANY of these questions indicates more critical thinking needs to be done before a working thesis emerges.
Here is what to do when an answer is "NO":
Is this thesis true?
Return to Step 3 and try a different thesis.
Are there three reasons (or more), either individually or collectively, proving the thesis is true?"
Return to Step 2 to get more and better sources.
Are these reasons based on authoritative (believable) sources?
Return to Step 2 to find better sources
Will this thesis overcome challenges (win an argument)?"
Return to Step 3 and try another thesis.


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Listing Strategy

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Now that there is a thesis, it is time to tell the reader what will prove it valid. Do this in the "listing" which is an ordered list of the three reasons (evidence) to be presented in proving your thesis is valid (true).

The "listing" acts like a Table of Contents found at the beginning of a book. Instead of using chapter numbers, the listing uses the order of evidence (reasons) to tell the reader what's coming next. Write it in a single sentence or more; however, a complex sentence is preferred to support the strategy used to highlight the single sentenced thesis. Understand you are writing the typical five-paragraph essay here, so be sure to dedicate a body paragraph for each reason on the list. Work hard to find three powerful reasons to support your thesis!

List your reasons in this order:
Body Paragraph 1: 2nd strongest reason thesis is valid
Body Paragraph 2: 3rd strongest reason thesis is valid
Body Paragraph 3: 1st strongest reason thesis is valid. This way the essay will finish strong!

KISS (Keep It Simple Student): Just list the reasons. Give a hint to spark further interest, but no more. Detailing why each "listing" item proves a valid thesis will happen in the body paragraphs.


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Single Sentence Example

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Example of a Thesis with Listing written in multiple sentences

Listing, tactically numbered and ordered for maximum impact:
2. Users will write faster
3. Users will benefit from added convenience
1. Users will produce essays that are well-organized.

Text: RoughDraftApp is a valuable writing tool. Users will write faster, more conveniently, and produce well-organized essays.
Thesis: RoughDraftApp is a valuable writing tool.
Listing: Users will write faster, more conveniently, and produce well-organized essays.


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Multiple Sentence Example

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Example of Thesis with Listing written in multiple sentences

Thesis: RoughDraftApp is a valuable writing tool.
Listing, tactically numbered and ordered for maximum impact:
2. Users will write faster
3. Users will benefit from added convenience
1. Users will produce essays that are well-organized.

Text: RoughDraftApp is a valuable writing tool. Users will benefit from increased writing speed and assignments being completed relatively faster. They will enjoy the added convenience of writing at home or away. Most importantly, RoughDraftApp users will find success proving knowledge and critical thinking skills by producing well-organized essays.
Thesis: RoughDraftApp is a valuable writing tool.
Listing: Users will benefit from increased writing speed and assignments being completed relatively faster. They will enjoy the added convenience of writing at home or away. Most importantly, RoughDraftApp users will find success proving knowledge and critical thinking skills by producing well-organized essays.


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Combination Example

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Example of Thesis and Listing written together in a single sentence

Thesis: RoughDraftApp is a valuable writing tool.
Listing, tactically numbered and ordered for maximum impact:
2. Users will write faster
3. Users will benefit from added convenience
1. Users will produce essays that are well-organized.

Text: RoughDraftApp is a valuable writing tool because users will write faster, more conveniently, and produce well-organized essays.
Thesis: RoughDraftApp is a valuable writing tool.
Listing: write faster, more conveniently, and produce well-organized essays


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Transition Strategy

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Transitions hold the essay together by making it easy for you and readers to stay focused on the information and opinions (not on random thoughts). Transition sentences at the end of the introductory paragraph should give reason to why it is important for the reader (not necessarily you) to keep reading the essay. Consider this by making a promise, stating the joy in reading essay, and by informing the reader something new will be presented.

Examples:


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Contrasting Ideas

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One important strategy in crafting an effective transition is to use contrasting conjunctions (a word that links words, phrases, or clauses) that cause the reader to want to find out more. A few common contrasting conjunctions are: but, however, conversely, as opposed, on the other hand, conflicting argument, alternative idea.

Example 1: Thinking that the world does not need another writing app, is wrongheaded, so examine why RoughDraftApp is a tool for every person writing an essay.
Contrasting conjunction: is wrongheaded
Alternative conjunction: not true,
Note: It might be "wrongheaded" to use "wrongheaded" in a serious essay.

Example 2: Thinking that the world does not need another writing app, and the nullifying idea is that RoughDraftApp is a tool worthy of serious examination.
Contrasting conjunction: nullifying
Alternative conjunction: not true,

Example 3: Some people claim that the world does not need another writing app, on the contrary, there are more people than ever learning to communicate in written English, and RoughDraftApp is the perfect tool to lend a helping hand.
Contrasting conjunction: on the contrary
Alternative conjunction: in actual fact, on the other side


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Suggestion

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Consider the following advice before trying to "excite" the reader into reading further. The key is to take your point and use a suggesting conjunction (a word that links words, phrases, or clauses) to how the reader will benefit by reading more. Suggesting conjunctions are tricky so be careful to use the ones saying "do it now" and avoid those giving the reader a chance to "think about it for later." Assuming your essay is worth reading (and it is), stay away from these suggesting conjunctions that contain the following words: think about, ponder, think upon. These words ask the reader to think about reading further. Don't give the reader that option. Strongly suggest they keep reading!

Example 1
Text: There is finally an essay writing tool to use on digital devices, to this end, please review how RoughDraftApp works.
Suggesting conjunction: to this end
Alternative conjunction: for this purpose, with this in mind
Suggestion: please review how RoughDraftApp works

Example 2
Text: RoughDraftApp is a very interesting tool how about reading further to see how it will help improve your writing?
Suggesting conjunction: how about
Alternative conjunction: why not, what about,
Suggestion: to see how it will help improve your writing?


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Consequence

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The word consequence often implies something "bad" will happen if "that" happens. You just produced the world changing thesis and have all the evidence needed to prove it is valid (true). Transitions using a consequence conjunction that scare people into wanting to learn more can be very effective. That said, it is better to use consequence conjunctions indicating the benefits of learning more. Here's a nice cliche to emphasize the point, "You catch more bees with honey."

Example 1
RoughDraftApp is an effective time-saving tool, so students and business professionals alike must invest minutes learning it or consequently continue wasting hours writing in the dark.
Consequence conjunction: consequently
Alternative conjunction: subsequently, as a deduction, undoubtedly
Point of Emphasis: RoughDraftApp is an effective time-saving tool
Consequence: continue wasting hours writing in the dark.

Example 2:
RoughDraftApp is an effective time-saving tool, so students and business professionals alike must invest in learning it, the upshot will be quality essays created in less time.
Consequence conjunction: upshot
Alternative conjunction: payoff, development, bottom line
Point of Emphasis: RoughDraftApp is an effective time-saving tool
Consequence: quality essays created in less time


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Transition Strategy

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Transitions create a structurally sound essay that smoothly move between body paragraphs. The goal is to build a bridge linking the transition (ending) of one paragraph to the topic sentence (beginning) of the following paragraph. The result will be a logical progression from one argument to the next. It takes a little bit of creativity to make the best transitions. Below are buttons taking you to the various strategies used to build literary bridges.


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Examples

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Remember to create a logical progression from one argument to the next!


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Add To the Previous Point

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Add To the Previous Point
Perhaps the most natural transition to use is "add to the previous point." After all, that is exactly what a well-organized essay does (add evidence until a full argument is made). Conversely, it can work in reverse and an ancillary (extra, supplemental) paragraph will follow a more important one.

Keywords: and, also, contributory, again, as well as, besides, additional, in addition, combined with, coupled with, furthermore, in addition to, likewise, moreover, similarly, contributory, cumulative, supplementing

Example 1
RoughDraftApp designers understand the most common challenges facing writers. Furthermore, they took the extra effort to dig deeper to find the cause of these issues.

Example 2
The interactive template coupled with the intuitively placed Strategy buttons makes RoughDraftApp an intriguing educational tool.

Example 3
RoughDraftApp users are free to write anywhere and, making this tool more valuable, is how the interactive template guides them into producing a well-organized essay.


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Show Similarity or Comparison Between Ideas

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Show Similarity or Comparison Between Ideas

Transitions are effective places to emphasize "similarity or comparison between ideas." These sentences cry out for a good Simile. Here are example words and phrases used to show similarity or comparison between ideas.

Keywords for clearly Showing Similarity: like, similarly, similar to, also, similarly, in the same way, likewise, again, in like manner

Example 1
RoughDraftApp is like having a teacher sitting next to you giving advice.

Keywords for clearly Showing Comparison: nevertheless, conversely, despite, while, on the one hand, on the other hand, unlike, in contrast, contrasted with, on the contrary, however, although, yet, even though, still, but, compared to, at the same time, regardless, while

Example 2
RoughtDraftApp combines advice with the ability to produce the text right on the user's phone, at the same time the competition only offers advice.


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Show Consequence

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Showing consequence or a result

Transitions that show consequence by scaring people into taking action are effective. That said, it is better to show consequences indicating the benefits of doing something. Here's a nice cliche to emphasize the point, "You catch more bees with honey."

Keywords: accordingly, offshoot, as a result, consequently, fallout, for this reason, bottom line, for this purpose, hence, otherwise, so then, subsequently, therefore, thus, thereupon, wherefore, after that

Example 1
RoughDraftApp users have the ability to work on their essays using their smartphone and subsequently makes it easier for users to work away from home.

Example 2
RoughDraftApp features an interactive template that guides users through the writing process. As a result, users find they produce well-organized essays.

Example 3
Failure to learn how to use RoughDraftApp will result in the writer continuing to suffer from a tragic case of essay disorganization.


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Emphasize a Point

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Emphasize a Point

Transitions that emphasize a point are effective when moving from one paragraph to a more important paragraph.

Keywords: above all, spotlight, underline, underscore, especially, for instance, in particular, markedly, namely, with attention to, draw attention to, call attention to, give prominence, particularly, singularly

Example 1
RoughDraftApp users have the ability to work on essays using a smartphone and above all the interactive Essay Template, when used as directed, ensures that a well-organized essay will result.

Example 2
RoughDraftApp users are able to find assistance directly from within the app, underscoring the value of only needing a smartphone to get the essay written.

Example 3
Persons learning to write academic essays often find it difficult to correctly use the various types of sentence structures, calling attention to the importance of the Essay Template in RoughDraftApp.


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Citing a Source

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Citing a Source in Transitions

Transitions are a good place to cite sources, especially when illustrating a point. There are three ways to make an "in-text" citation. All three include source information, the name of the source, and specific location. Choose a method that best fits your writing style. Remember the goal is to interject the citation without plugging the flow of the text.


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Contrast

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Transitions showing contrast are effective when the following paragraph is addressing a counterpoint to your thesis. You should note that many of the same keywords are used to show similarity or comparison between ideas. The difference will be in the context in which these words are used.

Keywords: contrast, in contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, in contrast

Example 1
It might be easy to think it's just another app, instead, the feature rich RoughDraftApp stands well above the crowd.

Example 2
One advantage of being in a classroom is that there is a teacher on hand to offer assistance when needed, by the same token, the interactive way advice is given by RoughDraftApp is the next best thing.

Example 3
Textbooks and teacher handouts are the traditional tools showing how to write effective and well-organized essays, conversely, RoughDraftApp is the way to meet that same goal using the technology of today.


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1st Topic Sentence

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Topic sentences must relate back to the thesis and should make the reader understand the subject of the paragraph. You may now show a little creativity since there are many ways to introduce a subject. As a result, figurative language and varied sentence types may prove effective.

The first body paragraph is a special case because it sets the tone for the rest of the body paragraphs. It is the first providing proof that the thesis is valid. Be sure to prove why the first item in your listing proves your thesis. Consider using a direct approach to the subject of the paragraph as the reader is most likely eager to get straight to your argument (facts, details, etc...).


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Examples

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The first body paragraph is a special case because it is the first providing proof that the thesis is valid. Be sure to relate back to the first item of your listing. Consider using a direct approach to the subject of the paragraph as the reader is most likely prepared to get straight to the facts as to why the thesis is correct.

Example Topic Sentences

Simple Sentence: RoughDraftApp users will spend less time writing essays.

Idiomatic Expression: RoughDraftApp keeps the writer working quickly by keeping him/her on track.

Metaphor: Staring at a blank screen and not knowing what to write takes away valuable time as many poorly written essays are a product of the writer simply not having enough time to get the job done correctly. RoghDraftApp eliminates the "blank screen."

Simile: Writing an essay without RoughDraftApp is like using an old typewriter to produce the final copy of an essay. It will get done, but it will take much longer than using a computer and printer.

Hyperbole: Some people take a million years to write a simple five paragraph essay. RoughDraftApp will help you do more writing in less time.


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Cited Evidence

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The topic sentence is an effective place to use cited evidence. The writer can introduce the subject of the paragraph by referring to what an expert in the subject matter said. The rest of the paragraph will set out to prove, disprove, or provide more information about the cited reference.

Note: Assume the source cited in the example in-text citations below would be on the Works Cited Page: Brockway, Robert. "5 Tips for Punching Writer's Block in the Face." Cracked.com. Cracked On-Line Magazine, 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 19 July 2015.

Example 1
According to Robert Brockway, it is important to "know what you write," to avoid a case of writer's block; and, the best way to overcome writer's block is to do some research.

Example 2
One way to prevent writer's block is to "know what you write" (Brockway).

Example 3
According to "5 Tips for Punching Writer's Block in the Face," one of the best ways to get started writing is to "know what you write" (Brockway). That's fine, but what happens if you know what to write and are stuck on the "how?" Here is where RoughDraftApp comes to the rescue.


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Topic Sentence Paragraph 2

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This Topic Sentence connects the second item in your listing to the thesis.

Topic sentences must relate back to the thesis and should make the reader understand the subject of the paragraph. You may now show a little creativity since there are many ways to introduce the subject. As a result, figurative language and varied sentence types may prove effective.


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Topic sentences must relate back to the thesis and should make the reader understand the subject of the paragraph. You may now show a little creativity since there are many ways to introduce the subject. As a result, figurative language and varied sentence types may prove effective.

Idiomatic Expression: RoughDraftApp keeps the writer working quickly by keeping him/her on track.

Metaphor: Staring at a blank screen and not knowing what to write takes away valuable time as many poorly written essays are a product of the writer simply not having enough time to get the job done correctly. RoghDraftApp eliminates the "blank screen."

Simile: Writing an essay without RoughDraftApp is like using an old typewriter to produce the final copy of an essay. It will get done, but it will take much longer than using a computer and printer.

Hyperbole: Some people take a million years to write a simple five paragraph essay. RoughDraftApp will help you do more writing in less time.


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Topic Sentence Paragraph 3

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This Topic Sentence connects the third item in your listing to the thesis.

Topic sentences must relate back to the thesis and should make the reader understand the subject of the paragraph. You may now show a little creativity since there are many ways to introduce the subject. As a result, figurative language and varied sentence types may prove effective.


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Review 3rd Topic Sentence

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To analyze this sentence read the following questions. Then, with these questions in mind, read aloud, making the necessary improvements.


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Why Sentence

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The Why Sentence follows the topic sentence in a body paragraph. Here is where you tell the reader why the topic of this paragraph supports the thesis.

Keep it short and to the point.

Be as direct as possible.

Try to use a simple sentence.

AFTER the Why Sentence you will be providing examples, evidence, or explanation how the paragraph proves the thesis is true.

This is not the place to be using source citations.


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Examples

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Remember, the "Why Sentence" states exactly why the topic of the paragraph proves the thesis is true. Here are some examples using various types of figurative language.

Example thesis and listing: RoughDraftApp is a valuable writing tool. Users will write faster, more conveniently, and produce essays that are well-organized.

Since this is the first body paragraph "write faster" is the subject.

Simple Sentence
Sample text: RoughDraftApp users will spend less time writing essays. The interactive format keeps the writer engaged in the task at hand.
Topic sentence: RoughDraftApp users will spend less time writing essays.
Why Sentence: The interactive format keeps the writers engaged in the task at hand.
Figurative expression: None

Idiomatic Expression
Sample text: RoughDraftApp allows the writer to work quickly. That is because the intuitive, interactive format keeps writers producing in leaps and bounds.
Topic sentence: RoughDraftApp allows writers to work quickly.
Why Sentence: That is because the intuitive, interactive format keeps writers producing in leaps and bounds.
Audience: students and teachers
Idiomatic Expression: writers producing in leaps and bounds

Metaphor
Sample Text: Users of RoughDraftApp say they love it because writing assignments are quickly and triumphantly completed. By following the interactive template of RoughDraftApp, the writer stays engaged in pushing buttons and typing out quality writing.
Topic sentence: Users of RoughDraftApp say they love it because writing assignments are quickly and triumphantly completed.
Why Sentence: By following the interactive template of RoughDraftApp, the writer stays engaged in pushing buttons and typing out quality writing.
Metaphor: writer stays engaged in pushing buttons and typing out

Simile
Sample Text: Users of RoughDraftApp say they love it because writing assignments are quickly and triumphantly completed. The interactive template keeps the writer engaged like a man on a mission to produce quality writing.
Topic sentence: Users of RoughDraftApp say they love it because writing assignments are quickly and triumphantly completed.
Why Sentence: The interactive template keeps the writer engaged like a man on a mission to produce quality writing.
Simile: writer engaged like a man on a mission


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Evidence and Examples

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The Evidence and Examples are supporting sentences that follows the "Why" sentence. Here is where the writer gives detailed examples as to how the subject of the paragraph proves the thesis true. Do this using as many sentences as needed as long as they are on point. One effective way is to give evidence in one sentence and follow with an example in the next sentence.


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Examples

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RoughDraftApp Template

Figures (graphics, photos, illustrations, maps, charts, etc.) may add valuable information to an essay under certain conditions. Figures must be relevant to the material next to where it is placed or referenced in the document. It must enhance the reader's understanding while not replacing the written word. Placing a clear, appropriate sized and captioned graphic inside the margins of the text is the most effective way to incorporate it into the essay. That said, some Figures will not fit well within the text and should be at the back of the essay. Regardless of location, Figures must have appropriate citing.

There is a two-step process to insert the required citing information when using Figures. This strategy eliminates the need to include this information on the Works Cited page.
1. Insert an in-text reference: The vast majority of RoughDraftApp users found the template style of inputting text very helpful in speeding up the actual writing of the essay (see fig. 1).
2. Insert the citing information in the Figure Caption: Fig. 1. New Essay screen used to guide the writing of the essay from Nick Arellano. "RoughDraftApp.com." RoughDraftApp. SoccerMagic.com LLC, 16 Oct. 2013. Web. 19 July 2015.


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Examples

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An effective way to convince readers that the essay thesis is valid is to use hard evidence like facts, statistics, evidence, and details. The Evidence and Examples section of the paragraph is where important sources of data are used to support your thesis.

In this example, an article reporting the results of a study on the impact of digital tools on student writing. The Evidence and Example section might look like this if the Topic Sentence is "Educators are resisting exclusive student use of new technologies."

To understand that many teachers are not completely behind the use of current technology in education, one only needs to review surveys. One important survey conducted by Pew Research Center, a nonpartisan, nonprofit "fact tank" that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world, found that "94% of teachers encourage the students to do some writing by hand." The reasons vary from having to write by hand on standardized tests to discouraging the temptation to copy and paste other's work (Purcell, Buchanan, and Friedrich).

Evidence: To understand that many teachers are not completely behind the use of current technology in education, one only needs to review surveys.

Example: One important survey conducted by Pew Research Center found that "94% of teachers encourage the students to do some writing by hand." The reasons vary from having to write by hand on standardized tests to discouraging the temptation to copy and paste other's work.

Evidence validating the source: a nonpartisan, nonprofit "fact tank" that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world

in-text citation: (Purcell, Buchanan, and Friedrich)

Works Cited page: Purcell, Kristen, Judy Buchanan, and Linda Friedrich. "The Impact of Digital Tools on Student Writing and How Writing Is Taught in Schools." Pew Research Center Internet Science Tech RSS. Pew Research Center, 15 July 2013. Web. 20 July 2015.


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Examples

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An effective strategy to convincing readers is to bring in expert witnesses to provide testimony that the thesis is valid. This example shows how to do it.

"Teaching in the Internet age means we must teach tomorrow's skills today," is a popular quote concerning technology in education credited to Jennifer Fleming an associate professor in the Department of Journalism and Mass Communication at California State University. It is clearly a forward-looking thought, but it is far from the absolute truth as some people may think it is. One can also argue as RoughDraftApp creator Nick Arellano does, "Teaching in the Internet age means we must teach yesterday's skills with today's technology." RoughDraftApp helps students and teachers by mixing current communication hardware and software. Much of what the writer needs is conveniently accessible by integration of the writing template with links to relevant advice. This combination is an asset to any writer looking to produce a well-written essay in a relatively short amount of time.

This example of Testimony in a Topic Sentence may seem like a long, complicated few sentences to write, but it is not as bad as it first looks. Consider the sentence structure.

Evidence: "Teaching in the Internet age means we must teach tomorrow's skills today," is a popular quote concerning technology in education credited to Jennifer Fleming an associate professor in the Department of Journalism and Mass Communication at California State University. It is clearly a forward-looking thought, but it is far from the absolute truth as some people may think it is. One can also argue as RoughDraftApp creator Nick Arellano does, "Teaching in the Internet age means we must teach yesterday's skills with today's technology." RoughDraftApp helps students and teachers by mixing current communication hardware and software.

Example: Much of what the writer needs is conveniently accessible by integration of the writing template with links to relevant advice. This combination is an asset to any writer looking to produce a well-written essay in a relatively short amount of time.


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Examples

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Cause and Effect strategy to provide evidence of a Why Sentence is very powerful when done correctly. Writing Cause and Effect sentences should be a step by step process. First, there must be an action that makes something happen. Second, there is a result caused by the action. In general, the steps above should be written as ordered above; however there is flexibility as long as both the Effect and the Cause are used.

Words commonly used to create Cause and Effect sentences include: so, because, therefore, as a result of. They are called "indicator" in the examples below.

Example 1
Sample Evidence Sentence: Writing well-organized essays requires the author to combine many parts of communications together, so RoughDraftApp was developed to find the right part at the right time.
Strategy: Compound sentence used to show cause and effect. Cause: Writing well-organized essays requires the author to combine many parts of communications together
Effect: RoughDraftApp was developed to find the right part at the right time.
Indicator: so

Example 2:
Sample Evidence Sentence: Many students get angry and frustrated because teachers assign essays that are a significant percentage of the final grade in the course. As a result, RoughDraftApp is designed to make achieving a high-grade much easier; therefore; student anger and frustration should diminish.
Strategy: In this example, two sentences are combined to create a Cause and Effect argument to support a Why Sentence. Each sentence is a Cause and Effect statement on its own and, combined, they are an effective Cause and Effect example of evidence proving the Why sentence.

First sentence
Strategy: Cause and Effect are shown using an Effect by Cause structure.
Cause: teachers assign essays that are a significant percentage of the final grade in the course
Effect: Many students get angry and frustrated.
Indicator: because

Second sentence
Cause: RoughDraftApp is designed to make achieving a high-grade much easier
Effect: student anger and frustration should diminish
Indicator: therefore

Combined sentences
Strategy: To show RoughDraftApp offers both Emotional and Actual benefits
Emotional Cause: student anger and frustration
Emotional Effect: anger and frustration should diminish
Actual Cause: essays that are a significant percentage of the final grade in the course.
Actual Effect: achieving a high-grade much easier
Indicator: As a result


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Examples

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Sentence variation is important for effective writing. Just using the same type of sentence gets boring to read as well as write. Also, sentence structure also helps emphasize key statements in the text.


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Examples

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Simple Sentence

The simple sentence is powerful when surrounded by complex sentences and compound-complex sentences. Conversely, that same simple sentence loses power when surrounded by other simple sentences. For this reason, simple sentences make the best thesis statements, and Why Sentences.

Simple Sentence: Contains only one independent clause (also known as a main clause).

Examples of Simple Sentences
1. RoughDraftApp is a great writing tool.
2. Of course, every student is entirely in his right mind to use RoughDraftApp.
3. Using RoughDraftApp makes an essay writer organized and productive.


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Examples

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Complex Sentences allow the writer to build on a single thought (simple sentence) by adding a shorter set of words (dependent clause). The dependent clause is often the most powerful part of the complex sentence just as the simple sentence is powerful when surrounded by longer sentences.

Complex sentence: Contains one or more dependent clauses and an independent clause. A dependent clause can not stand alone, even though it has a subject and a verb, and an independent clause stands alone as a sentence and makes a complete thought.

Example 1
RoughDraftApp is on your phone, just get busy at the coffee shop.
Independent clause: RoughDraftApp is on your phone
Dependent clause: just get busy at the coffee shop

Example 2
Even though RoughDraftApp is inexpensive, it offers plenty of features and benefits.
Dependent clause: Even though RoughDraftApp is inexpensive
Independent clause: it offers plenty of features and benefits.
Dependent clause: Even though RoughDraftApp is inexpensive


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Examples

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Compound sentences can be used when the writer wants to use one complete thought (simple sentence) with another (simple sentence). Theses are great when the writer shows cause and effect.

Compound Sentence: Contains two independent clauses or sentences. Independent clauses are usually joined by a coordinating conjunction (and/for/but/so) or a semicolon ( ; ).

Example 1
He installed RoughDraftApp on his tablet, so he was able to work on his essay pretty much anywhere.
Independent clause: He installed RoughDraftApp on his tablet
coordinating conjunction: so
Independent clause: he was able to work on his essay pretty much anywhere

Example 2
RoughDraftApp is great to use; you can work on your essay anywhere there is a cell or wi-fi signal.
Independent clause: RoughDraftApp is great to use
coordinating conjunction: ;
independent clause: you can work on your essay anywhere there is a cell or wi-fi signal


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Examples

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Compound-complex sentences are used when the writer wants to add information to support the "subject" of the sentence. One strategy is to use a dependent clause right after identifying the subject.

Compound-complex Sentence: Contains two or more dependent clauses, and independent clauses.

Example 1
The teacher thought that RoughDraftApp was just a gadget, but the students, who enjoy modern technology, decided this educator was wrong.
Independent clause: The teacher thought that RoughDraftApp was just a gadget.
Independent clause: the students decided this educator was wrong.
Dependent clause: who enjoy modern technology (this dependent clause adds relevant information to the subject)

Example 2
Although Nick was staring at a blank screen, he knew RoughDraftApp was just a click away, and that aspiring author had no reason to be concerned.
Independent clause: he knew RoughDraftApp was just a click away
independent clause: that aspiring author had no reason to be concerned.
dependent clause: Although Nick was staring at a blank screen (this dependent clause describes what the subject was doing)

Example 3
RoughDraftApp is designed to make teaching how to write much easier, and according to the developer Nick Arellano, a classroom teacher in the East Side Union High School District in San Jose, California, students have an interactive tool that reinforces instruction during independent practice.
Independent clause: RoughDraftApp is designed to make teaching how to write much easier
Independent clause: students have an interactive tool that reinforces instruction during independent practice.
dependent clause: according to the developer Nick Arellano (states who owns the statement)
Dependent clause: a classroom teacher in the East Side Union High School District in San Jose, California (provides credentials of the person making the statement)


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Examples

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The Evidence and Examples Sentences are generally NOT the place for colorful language. The following types of figurative language offer the best chances for successful inclusion.


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Begin Conclusion

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Simply put, the conclusion needs to be the best part of the essay!

Begin Conclusion: The conclusion is the last chance to prove the thesis is valid. Write a sentence that begins to finish the essay. Start the conclusion with a topic sentence telling the reader that the essay is ending. This sentence can be very simple; however, try to avoid cliches like "In conclusion," "In closing," and "To summarize."


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Examples

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Example 1:
Introduction: Tools are needed to assist today's diverse population of American students preparing for careers requiring written communication skills that prove the understanding of a subject and demonstrate critical thinking skills. RoughDraftApp is an effective writing tool. Users learn to complete writing assignments faster, write while mobile, and consistently produce well-organized essays. Students taking advantage of the interactive writing system featured by RoughDraftApp will find success in acquiring these vastly needed skills.
Conclusion: You have just read about a valuable tool to help train American students to prove understanding of a subject and demonstrate critical thinking skills. RoughDraftApp is that writing tool. Individually considered; writing faster, writing anywhere, and writing well-organized essays, could be a viable theme for an effective writing tool. RoughDraftApp interweaves these features together in a single package. And it is available for anyone to try it today.
Notes: "You have just read about" shows the essay is ending. Also, the key point of the hook is repeated in the concluding topic sentence.

Example 2:
Introduction: In the story "Beating Writer's Block," teenage Nick struggles to pass any class that requires writing essays. He studies hard, knows the topic details, but can't prove it in writing. All this changes when he finds help from an unlikely source, an app that goes on his phone and computer. RoughDraftApp is an effective writing tool. Nick, who eventually went on to study at a major college, learned to complete writing assignments faster, write wherever he was, and specialize in producing well-organized essays. His story is inspiring. He went from frustrated high school junior to a college honor student just by learning to use RoughDraftApp, a tool he still uses today.
Conclusion: There is little doubt that Nick nailed that master's thesis. RoughDraftApp trained him well. That once struggling teenage essay writer can now quickly, freely, produce well-organized essays. "Beating Writer's Block," is an inspiring story of transformation that should repeat every day by every student in the world.
Notes: Here the topic sentence signals the end of the essay by showing what probably happened after the story ended. Nick went from a struggling high schooler to writing his masters thesis.

Example 3:
Introduction: I recommend that the company purchase a license to use RoughDraftApp and make it available to all employees. RoughDraftApp is an effective writing tool. Our staff will complete written communications faster, write while traveling, and specialize in producing well-organized reports. This writing program will help our bottom line as communications between staff, suppliers, and clients will improve.
Conclusion: I am confident the company will benefit from making RoughDraftApp a tool in our communications process. It is an amazing tool. Staff will write faster, travel more efficiently, and reporting will improve. The investment required is minimal per user, and we will only purchase what is needed. Please advise on how we will move forward with RoughDraftApp.
Notes: Here the writer restates his recommendation.


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Restatement

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Tips for restating the thesis as part of the concluding paragraph:
1. Start restating your thesis by reviewing the hook. For example, if the hook is in the present tense, then change the topic sentence of the conclusion to past tense, and then fit the restated thesis to fit.
2. Use different words (synonyms).


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Summarizing

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This is where you tell the reader what they should have learned. In general, this is done by restating the listing in a similar fashion as restating the thesis. Then go a step further and explain the connection between these parts.

Example
Listing: Nick, who eventually went on to study at a major college, learned to complete writing assignments faster, write wherever he was, and specialize in producing well-organized essays.
Restatement: It is easy to see that Nick's life changed by using RoughDraftApp as he learned to be more productive, and flexible in working environments. Ultimately, he produced top class written communication.


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Motivating Reader

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Reader Motivation

The final sentence should be reserved to leave the reader with one last motivation. Give the reader something to do; however, do not bring up anything new that requires further proof to make it motivational.

Answer "So what?": Consider what the implications might be beyond the points made in the essay. This strategy will leave readers with an understanding of why the thesis is important how it can apply beyond the scope of the essay.
Text: "Beating Writer's Block," is an inspiring story of transformation that should repeat every day by every student in the world.
Strategy: Expands the results of the story to every student in the world.

Connect to a larger issue: Establish a connection between the thesis and the general theme or condition of the industry, problem, or desire.
Text: While RoughDraftApp is specifically designed to help people learn more about writing essays, many of the concepts presented should also aid in eliminating illiteracy throughout the world.
Strategy: To suggest that RoughDraftApp has farther-reaching implications

Ask a new question: Invites the reader to consider a new idea or question that came out as a result of reading the essay.
Text: RoughDraftApp does all that, but how does it do it?
Strategy: By asking that question, it is hoped that the reader will buy RoughDraftApp to find the answer to the question.

Addressing Limitations: Introduce possible weaknesses of the thesis without expanding. Often useful in concluding papers on response to an Analytical essay.
Text: The study claims that many teachers discourage students from using new on-line technologies citing the preceding negative consequences. They might want to learn how to deal with it since everyone is using new technology.
Strategy: To argue against the thesis.

Give an order: Tell the reader to do something based on the essay.
Text: Please advise on how we will move forward with RoughDraftApp.
Strategy: Imply agreement by asking for next move.


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Prewriting Tips

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What to Know

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Use six magic questions when preparing to write your next essay: Who?, What?, When?, Where?, Why?, How? Once this done it will be easier to narrow down what to include in the essay.

Who?: Who is involved? Who are main subjects? Who are minor subjects? Who is affected?

What?: What is the topic? What is the main problem? What are the main issues? What is the importance of the topic?

Where?: Where does the story take place? Where does the source of the issue come from? Where is the cause or effect of the issue most visible?

When?: When does the story take place? When is the issue most apparent? Is the story in the past, present, or future? When did the problem or issue develop? What historical information shaped the problem or issue? At what point in time will the problem or issue become a crisis or need solving? When is action needed to address the problem or issue?

Why?: Why did the problem or issue arise? Why is your topic a problem or issue in the first place? Why did the problem or issue develop? Why should there be a response?

How?: How is the problem or issue important? How does it affect the participants? How can the issue or problem be resolved?


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About

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Writing Process

Thank you for trying RoughDraftApp. I am confident it will be of value to you. The inspiration for RoughDraftApp came from two places. First came the need to learn how to build an app so I can teach it to my Web Tech class. So the summer of 2013 was devoted to getting that done. For my learning project, I decided to build an app that would help teach students to organize an essay. A writing an essay project enhances word processing instruction, common core before they called it "common core." The result was good enough to test.

I shared it with my students and quickly learned that this app has value. It made the writing process easier, and they actually used it for essay assignments for other classes. One English Learner Student told me that he earned the highest grade in his ESL English class because of RoughDraftApp! That was enough inspiration to push the project further.

Then came another year of watching students use RoughDraftApp for their Senior Project. A high stakes, essay and presentation, research project that is a "fail and you don't graduate" assignment. Citing sources was an issue, so I added advice on how to insert in-text links (citations) pointing to the Works Cited page. I watched as students hunted down basic information. It was usually the kind of stuff that required a quick reminder. Kind of like when I am working around my house, and I can't find the tool that was just in my hand. Sometimes I spend more time looking for the hammer then it takes to pound the nails in. Frustrating!

So that is where the second point of inspiration came. The need to keep the writing flowing by reducing interruptions. The user interface (UI) offers "in the moment" advice. That is why the relevant Strategy buttons are where they are. If the user needs to cite a source in the "Evidence and Example" part of a paragraph, he'll just click (or push) a button to learn how. If a little figurative language helps make a point, click the button. And so on.

The feature I like the most is the interactive template. I don't use it all the time and you shouldn't either. In fact, it would be awesome if one could remember everything and not need it at all. That said, RoughDraftApp sure comes in handy when I have something serious to write!

Nothing will do your writing for you, and that should never happen! Your words deserve to be read. Good luck in future writing assignments. -- Nick Arellano.

Nick Arellano

RoughDraftApp is dreamed-up and written by Nicholas Arellano M.A.T. to serve as a tool to assist people to construct well-organized written communication. Arellano holds a Masters of Arts in Multicultural Teaching and works at Yerba Buena High School in San Jose, California. You can contact Mr. A at mra@roughdraftapp.net




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Frequently Asked Questions

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What is RoughDraftApp?
RoughDraftApp is an interactive writing template designed to help people construct a well-organized essay.

How do I use RoughDraftApp?
Using RoughDraftApp is simple. All you need to do is fill in the RoughDraftApp Form and press the "Create RoughDraft" button. The various buttons, when pressed, provide quick advice and reminders for each sentence you write.

What should I do after pressing the "Create RoughDraft" button?
The RoughDraftApp provides you with text that should be copied directly off the screen and saved into your desktop publishing program. If you are using a handheld device like a phone, or tablet then we recommend that you save it in a note taking app (like Evernote).

What happens if I don't finish my essay?
The text should stay on your phone or browser. BUT don't risk losing it. Press the "Create RoughDraft" button and then copy the text and save it somewhere safe. Then just continue writing your essay in RoughDraftApp where you left off. You can then put the text together before working on your final draft.


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Source Citation

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Imagine that a friend tells you a story. It was hard for you to believe, and you question him. He responds "If you don't believe me then ask the guy who told me." But the source of this story cannot be found. Would you still question the believability of the story? Clearly, you should. Sources must be easy to find. Doing so will make your story or argument more effective. Achieving success is easy when citing your references as outlined in Modern Language Association, from now on referred to as MLA standards. There are two other styles of formal citing of sources, APA and Chicago; however, they are not covered here in detail. That said, the theory is the same as MLA.

First off the easiest way to cite a source is to not bother. That said, use common sense and a strong sense of ethical practice. In general, you do not need to quote anything that is common knowledge; however, consider the following questions when deciding to cite a source or not. Answering "Yes" to one or more requires a citing of the reference.
1. Is the audience expecting cited sources?
2. Is there a financial impact?
3. Is the source interesting to the reader?

There are two parts to a successful source citation. First, is the "in-text link" that tells the reader there is a source to the information. Second, is the "full-citation" listed at the end of the essay. Together, these two parts work to make finding the source as easy as possible.


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In-Text Link

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In-text citations are Links to the Works Cited page at the back of the essay. There are three ways to make in-text links fit smoothly into the text. Each Link has three parts: Who (said it), What (was said), Where (can I find it on the Works Cited Page). In the Examples below the reader is directed to find Arellano citation on the Works Cited page.

Example 1: Source Name and Direct Quote
Text: Arellano stated that citations must be "must be easy to find" (213).
Who: Arellano (Use complete name if this is the first time it appears in the essay.)
What: "must be easy to find" (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: page 213 of quoted book.
Link: (213)

Example 2: Direct quote in a sentence.
Text: The value of a cited source is enhanced by the "ease at which the audience finds it" (Arellano 213).
Who: Arellano (Use complete name if this is the first time it appears in the essay.)
What: "ease at which the audience finds it" (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: page 213 of the cited book
Link: (Arellano 213)

Example 3: Summary of cited information
Text: Arellano goes on to prove the need for easy access to sources in effective written communication (213).
Who: Arellano (Use complete name if this is the first time it appears in the essay.)
What: goes on to prove the need for easy access to sources in effective written communication
Where: page 213 of the cited book
Link: (213)


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Citations

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Providing detailed citation structure for every possible type of source is beyond the scope of RoughDraftApp. That said here is how to cite information taken from web pages (commonly referred to as electronic sources). After all, the vast majority of research is done on the web nowadays.

Electronic source citation: Author (if available). Site name. Site publisher, date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.

Example using RoughDraftApp website: Arellano, Nick. "RoughDraftApp." RoughDraftApp.com. SoccerMagic.com LLC, 15 July 2015. Web. 27 July 2015.

Example using citing a .PDF file: Arellano, Nick. "How to use RDA," RoughDraftApp.com, 2015. PDF file.


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Multiple Authors

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For a source with three or fewer authors, the in-text citation includes all authors' last names in alphabetical order.

Example 1: Source Name and Direct Quote
Text: Arellano, Barnhart, and Nguyen stated that citations must be "must be easy to find" (213).
Who: Arellano, Barnhart, Nguyen
What: "must be easy to find" (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: page 213 of quoted book.
Link: (213)

Example 2: Direct quote in a sentence.
Text: The value of a cited source is enhanced by the "ease at which the audience finds it" (Arellano, Barnhart, Nguyen 213).
Who: Arellano, Barnhart, Nguyen
What: "ease at which the audience finds it" (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: page 213 of the cited book
Link: (Arellano 213)

Example 3: Summary of cited information
Text: Arellano, Barnhart, and Nguyen goes on to prove the need for easy access to sources in effective written communication (213).
Who: Arellano, Barnhart, Nguyen (Use complete name if this is the first time it appears in the essay.)
What: goes on to prove the need for easy access to sources in effective written communication
Where: page 213 of the cited book
Link: (213)


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4 + Authors

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For a source with more than four or more authors, the in-text citation includes first authors' last name and "et al." to indicate there are three or more other authors of the cited work. Use (Arellano et al) instead of (Arellano, Barnhart, Nguyen, and Ramirez.)

Example 1: Source Name and Direct Quote
Text: Arellano et al. stated that citations must be "must be easy to find" (213).
Who: Arellano, Barnhart, Nguyen, and Ramirez
What: "must be easy to find" (exact quote in quotation marks
Where: page 213 of quoted book.
Link: (213)

Example 2: Direct quote in a sentence.
Text: The value of a cited source is enhanced by the "ease at which the audience finds it" (Arellano et al. 213).
Who: Arellano, Barnhart, Nguyen, and Ramirez
What: "ease at which the audience finds it" (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: page 213 of the cited book
Link: (Arellano et al. 213)

Example 3: Summary of cited information
Text: Arellano et al. go on to prove the need for easy access to sources in effective written communication (213).
Who: Arellano, Barnhart, Nguyen, and Ramirez
What: goes on to prove the need for easy access to sources in effective written communication
Where: page 213 of the cited book
Link: (213)


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Unknown Author

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In-text citations for print sources with no known author

When a source has an unknown author, the in-text citation is the Title followed by the page number. Abbreviations are used to keep the impact on the flow of reading to a minimum.

Example 1: Source Name and Direct Quote
Text: According to "The Impact of Digital Tools," students find the writing process to be difficult and time-consuming which does not fit well with "being rushed in everything they do" (61).
Who: "The Impact of Digital Tools" (abbreviated from The Impact of Digital Tools on Student Writing and How Writing is Taught in Schools)
What: "being rushed in everything they do." (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: page 61 of quoted report.
Link: (61)

Example 2: Direct quote in a sentence.
Text: Generally speaking students find the writing process to be difficult and time-consuming which does not fit well with "being rushed in everything they do" ("The Impact of Digital Tools" 61).
Who: "Impact of Digital Tools" (abbreviated from The Impact of Digital Tools on Student Writing and How Writing is Taught in Schools)
What: "being rushed in everything they do." (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: page 61 of the cited report.
Link: ( "The Impact of Digital Tools" 61)

Example 3: Summary of cited information
Text: This later result is most concerning because 88% of these teachers report spending class time discussing this area of the writing process ("The Impact of Digital Tools" 39-40).
Who: "Impact of Digital Tools" (abbreviated from The Impact of Digital Tools on Student Writing and How Writing is Taught in Schools) What: 88% of these teachers report spending class time discussing this area of the writing process.
Where: pages 39-40 of the cited report
Link: ("The Impact of Digital Tools" 39-40)


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Corporate Author

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When a source has a corporate author, the in-text citation is the name of the corporation followed by the page number. Abbreviations are used to keep the impact on the flow of reading to a minimum.

Example 1: Source Name and Direct Quote
Text: According to the results of a 2013 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center, students find the writing process to be difficult and time-consuming which does not fit well with "being rushed in everything they do." (61)
Who: Pew Research Center (Use organization name)
What: "being rushed in everything they do." (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: page 61 of quoted report.
Link: (61)

Example 2: Direct quote in a sentence.
Text: Generally speaking students find the writing process to be difficult and time-consuming which does not fit well with "being rushed in everything they do" (Pew p. 61).
Who: Pew Research Center (Use organization name)
What: "being rushed in everything they do." (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: page 61 of the cited report.
Link: (Pew 61)

Example 3: Summary of cited information
Text: This later result is most concerning because 88% of these teachers report spending class time discussing this area of the writing process (Pew p. 39-40).
Who: Pew Research Center (Use organization name)
What: 88% of these teachers report spending class time discussing this area of the writing process.
Where: pages 39-40 of the cited report
Link: (39-40)


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Indirect Sources

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For indirect sources (a source quoted in a cited source) the in-text citation includes "qtd. in" to indicate the source you used. "Quoted in" is used when the source you used is referenced directly in the text (Example 1 below).

Example 1: Source Name and Direct Quote
Text: Quoted in "The Impact of Digital Tools," students find the writing process to be difficult and time-consuming which does not fit well with "being rushed in everything they do" (61).
Who: "The Impact of Digital Tools" (abbreviated from The Impact of Digital Tools on Student Writing and How Writing is Taught in Schools)
What: "being rushed in everything they do" (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: page 61 of quoted report.
Link: (61)

Example 2: Direct quote in a sentence.
Text: Generally speaking students find the writing process to be difficult and time-consuming which does not fit well with "being rushed in everything they do" (qtd. in "The Impact of Digital Tools" 61).
Who: qtd. in "Impact of Digital Tools" (abbreviated from The Impact of Digital Tools on Student Writing and How Writing is Taught in Schools)
What: "being rushed in everything they do" (exact quote in quotation marks).
Where: page 61 of the cited report.
Link: (qtd. in "The Impact of Digital Tools" 61)

Example 3: Summary of cited information
Text: This later result is most concerning because 88% of these teachers report spending class time discussing this area of the writing process (qtd. in "The Impact of Digital Tools" 39-40).
Who: "Impact of Digital Tools" (abbreviated from The Impact of Digital Tools on Student Writing and How Writing is Taught in Schools)
What: 88% of these teachers report spending class time discussing this area of the writing process.
Where: pages 39-40 of the cited report
Link: (qtd. in "The Impact of Digital Tools" 39-40)


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Internet Sources

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Citing Internet Sources follows common in-text citation rules. The name of the website replaces the TITLE of a book or publication of the cited work. Keep it simple by using only the domain name. Do not include "http://www." or "http://www." Use "RoughDraftApp.com" instead of "http://www.roughdraftapp.com." The following examples are how to make in-text citations for Internet sources without a known author or editor. For all other types (known author, multiple authors, etc.) simply replace the publisher of the cited work (book, article, etc.) with the domain name. Be sure to include the date the information was accessed.

Example 1: Source Name and Direct Quote
Text: According to "RoughDraftApp.com" students find the writing process to be difficult and time-consuming which does not fit well with "being rushed in everything they do" (n.p.).
Who: "RoughDraftApp.com" (abbreviated from http://www.roughdraftapp.com)
What: "being rushed in everything they do." (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: Put (n.p.) if no page is indicated.
Link: (n.p.)

Example 2: Direct quote in a sentence.
Text: Generally speaking students find the writing process to be difficult and time-consuming which does not fit well with "being rushed in everything they do" (RoughDraftApp.com n.p.).
Who: "Impact of Digital Tools" (abbreviated from http://www.roughdraftapp.com)
What: "being rushed in everything they do." (exact quote in quotation marks)
Where: Put (n.p.) if no page is indicated.
Link: (RoughDraftApp.com n.p.)

Example 3: Summary of cited information
Text: This later result is most concerning because 88% of these teachers report spending class time discussing this area of the writing process (RoughDraftApp.com n.p.).
Who: "Impact of Digital Tools" (abbreviated from http://www.roughdraftapp.com)
What: 88% of these teachers report spending class time discussing this area of the writing process.
Where: Put (n.p.) if no page is indicated.
Link: (RoughDraftApp.com n.p.)


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Sentence Types

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RoughDraftApp provides links to these explanations of the various sentence types used in effective writing as reminders through the New Essay Template. That said, you can review here before you get started writing.


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Figurative Language

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RoughDraftApp provides links to these explanations of the various sentence types used in effective writing as reminders through the New Essay Template. That said, you can review here before you get started writing.

Alliteration: Repeating the initial letter, sound, or group of sounds in a series of words. Includes tongue twisters.
Example: Write right rocking RoughDraftApp right, right?

Cliche: An expression that has been used so often that it has become trite and sometimes boring.
Example: Many hands make light work.

Hyperbole: An exaggeration so dramatic that it can't be true. Tall tales are hyperboles.
Example: It used to take him a million years to write an essay.

Idiom or idiomatic expressions: Language peculiar to a group of people.
Example: His writing stalled because of extreme writer's block.

Metaphor: States facts or draws a verbal picture using comparison.
Example: RoughDraftApp's graphic interface is as smooth as the screen you touch

Onomatopoeia: Words describing or imitating a natural sound, the sound made by an object, or an action.
Example: With RoughDraftApp, I write by going click, click, click.

Personification: Figure of speech giving human characteristics to an animal or object.
Example: RoughDraftApp writes essays with my help!

Simile: Comparing one object or idea with another to suggest they are alike using words "like" or "as."
Example: RoughDraftApp is like magic


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Examples

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Following are examples of how you should approach the various types of essays.


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Literature

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Response to Literature (answering in response to literary piece).

In this is example the author is responding to a (totally imagined) short story entitled "Beating Writer's Block." Try to spot the various types of sentences and how the references to the story were inserted.

Help Never Forgotten

In the story "Beating Writer's Block," teenage Nick struggles to pass any class that requires writing essays. He studies hard, knows the topic details, but can't prove it in writing. All this changes when he finds help from an unlikely source, an app that goes on his phone and computer. RoughDraftApp is an effective writing tool. Nick, who eventually went on to study at a major college, learned to complete writing assignments faster, write wherever he was, and specialize in producing well-organized essays. His story is inspiring. He went from frustrated high school junior to a college honor student just by learning to use RoughDraftApp, a tool he still uses today.

"Beating Writer's Block" starts off with Nick sitting, frozen, at his computer with Google Docs open, music blasting, and detailed handwritten notes to the side. Once he found RoughDraftApp, he wrote like he was on fire. His grades went from C's to A's, and he had time to spend with a girlfriend that shared his newly discovered passion for writing.

For Nick, the most effective feature of RoughDraftApp was the way to get the exact advice he needed when needed. All he had to do was click on the Strategy buttons and review the advice for the exact sentence on his screen. His girlfriend liked the way she could just click the "Create RoughDraft" button and get the text ready to copy and paste into a word processing program. The couple enjoyed quickly completing writing assignments, especially when around town.

The book became relevant when Nick discovered writing productivity increased no matter where he was at the time. That's because most people constantly seem to be working on the run today. RoughDraftApp is used everywhere. He was writing on his phone, it was Android-based, while in the waiting room at the doctor's office, and at the coffee shop using the tablet his girlfriend bought him for his birthday. Sometimes, Nick's favorite place to write was in his room with music blasting. It didn't matter where he got his writing done because it was always well-organized.

In the final chapter of the book, Nick pauses to reflect back to days when he froze in front of a computer screen being afraid to start writing an essay. He didn't know where to begin, but even more terrifying was the thought of sounding "stupid" as his ideas bounced around in no particular order. Nick felt relieved when he snapped back to the present and went back to writing. RoughDraftApp specializes in helping writers produce well-organized essays. The interactive template makes it happen. Nick enjoys knowing what to write next as he moves along, and when he gets stuck he hits one of the nearby links to get instantaneous advice. The template even organizes when sentence types are used to further enhance the organization of the essay. The story ends with Nick starting to write his master's thesis without even opening RoughDraftApp.

There is little doubt that Nick nailed that master's thesis. RoughDraftApp trained him well. That once struggling teenage essay writer can now quickly, freely, produce well-organized essays. "Beating Writer's Block," is an inspiring story of transformation that should repeat every day by every student in the world.


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Analytical

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Analytical Essay (response to non-fiction writing.)

New Writing Tools Are Needed

Students are more invested in their writing; however, less likely to put effort into their writing. Many teachers report that most students do not properly cite sources, nor effectively organize their writing according to the results of a 2013 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center. The report, entitled The Impact of Digital Tools on Student Writing and How Writing is Taught in Schools, detailed the opinions of 2,462 Advanced Placement (AP) and National Writing Project (NWP) teachers. These findings concerning student writing motivates one to examine "why" this is true and what can be done to make improvements. Students need new digital tools to assist in learning how to communicate through effective essays. Generally speaking tools are created to aid in completing tasks. To that end, it is critical to know that students struggle with the most detailed steps in the writing process and select tools that make writing easier and faster to accomplish. These factors lead to the identification of new digital tools developed to assist students in these most challenging steps in producing effective essays. This article shows why student writing is where it is today and suggest the types of tools that will help them improve. Before drawing conclusions, it is critical to start off by understanding what students consider "writing."

Students define "writing" as writing they do for school and personal business. Similarly, teachers acknowledge writing as "formal" or "creative" which means essays, written responses to questions, and fiction writing (Pew, p. 17). No doubt the student view is heavily influenced by teachers as to what is formal writing and when they need to write formally. Students struggle with the most detailed steps in the writing process. Generally speaking students find the writing process to be difficult and time-consuming which does not fit well with "being rushed in everything they do." (Pew p. 61) This leads to shortcuts being taken that affect the final written product as indicated by the poor rating teachers gave students in the areas of essay organization, properly citing sources and plagiarism. These are all detail intensive areas in the writing process that require high degrees of critical thinking and time not producing text. Only 3% of teachers rated students as being "excellent" and only 21% as "very good" in the ability to effectively organize and structure writing assignments. Even lower were the ratings concerning citing resources, including plagiarism, as 57% of teachers gave "fair" or "poor" scores. This later result is most concerning because 88% of these teachers report spending class time discussing this area of the writing process (Pew p. 39-40). Clearly there is a need to examine contributing factors to why students struggle. A strong indicator comes from the tools used when writing.

Basic economic theory says that people are driven to make decisions that most benefit themselves. Therefore, entrepreneurs attempt to benefit from creating products and services that other people will find beneficial enough to purchase. Student choice of available digital writing tools is directly impacted by the benefit gained. They choose tools that make their formal writing tasks easier and faster to accomplish. Word processing software like MicroSoft Word, OpenOffice Writer, and Google Docs have substantially replaced the pen, paper, and especially the typewriter as the principal writing tools used in education. Wide-ranging word processing software reduces the time once used in creating formal writing assignments; and, there is a market full of software designed to assist in virtually everything people do. In the forefront are FaceBook, Twitter, and texting applications (apps) that specialize in social and personal communication. In fact, many teachers blame these apps for the instances of texting jargon found in student writing(Pew p. 35). A quick search on major search engines results in a list of digital tools (apps, websites) claiming to assist in everything from researching to writing the essay for students. These apps succeed because they fill needs common to many writers. Nonetheless, the Pew Research Center, a nonpartisan, nonprofit "fact tank," (Pew p. 10) reports that students still struggle in producing organized and referenced essays. Something new is needed.

Successful tools make life easier for their users, and there are a massive amount of digital tools offering help on just about everything. To this end, the focus is to assist students in easily and quickly dealing with essay organization and citing of sources. The key issue is time. Students need a way to get writing immediately and then efficiently move step by step through the process. Writing templates are practical tools, furthermore many university websites and apps offer outstanding advice on all steps of formal writing. That said, all this information has been available. The next step is to organize the proper organizational templates with the relevant advice that is just a click away. This will accelerate the writing process by having everything needed to type in the text without being slowed by having to navigate through different resources to get answers to basic formal writing requirements. This will give students time to concentrate on their content. Once an efficient system is in place much of the frustration in writing in detail is eliminated. So far digital tools have replaced the pen, paper, and typewriter. The next step is to eliminate having to shuffle papers and hunt down formatting details. This will be done by providing students a digital place to "write" and instantly access advice on the how to organize and incorporate referenced materials into the text.

Based on student needs in the areas of essay organization and source citation, it is evident the writing activity needs to be simplified. Students need new digital tools to assist in learning how to communicate through effective essays. A significant step toward improvement will be the development of tools that make the most tedious steps in the writing process easier and faster to accomplish. There is a new app available. It is called RoughDraftApp, and it specializes in essay organization and providing instant access to strategies that will make the details easier to incorporate into the written text. Learn about this new digital tool at RoughDraftApp.com.

Work Cited
Pew Reseach Center and National Writing Project. The Impact of Digital Tools on Student Writing and How Writing Is Taught in Schools. 2013. PDF file.


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Informational

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Informational Essay (inform the reader)

In is example the author is responding to (totally imagined) short story entitled "Beating Writer's Block." Try to spot the various items used in creating the essay.

RoughDraftApp Is an Effective Writing Tool

Tools are needed to assist today's diverse population of American students preparing for careers requiring written communication skills that prove the understanding of a subject and demonstrate critical thinking skills. RoughDraftApp is an effective writing tool. Users learn to complete writing assignments faster, write while mobile, and consistently produce well-organized essays. Students taking advantage of the interactive writing system featured by RoughDraftApp will find success in acquiring these vastly needed skills.

Any essay writer has the potential of running into problems, like writer's block or lack of focus, which delay the successful completion of the project. RoughDraftApp helps students complete writing assignments faster. The design visually guides the writer, offers timely advice along the way, and then produces text to edit and format into the final draft. Also, essay completion time is faster because the writer can work anywhere.

It is safe to say that millions of people live in fast pace environments that require juggling more than one project at a time. The modern term for this is "multi-tasking." RoughDraftApp is a tool intended for use everywhere inspiration or pressure hits the author. Unexpected waiting time could turn into a writing opportunity or time for reviewing writing advice. All a writer would need is an Android-based device, with RoughDraft installed, and he can be on the run continuing to craft a well-organized essay.

Quickly finishing essays because of an interactive template and instant advice, no matter the location, is valuable; but at the end of the day it is the results that matter. RoughDraftApp specializes in helping writers produce well-organized essays. The interactive template makes it happen. The writer knows what paragraph to write, and RoughDraftApp guides you through organizing those paragraphs sentence by sentence. The result will be a well articulated, well-organized, convincing essay.

There is a need for quality writing tools. Individually considered; writing faster, writing anywhere, and writing well-organized essays, each of the benefits could be the theme for an effective writing tool. RoughDraftApp interweaves these features together in a single package. And it is available for anyone to try it today.


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Persuasive

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Persuasive Composition (convince the reader)

Consider the following questions before and after reading this essay:
1. Did the author anticipate potential concerns?
2. Was a specific appeal type used to reach the reader (logic, emotion, ethics)?

Ghostwriting Industry Needs Regulation

It is amazing to see what one gets after typing in the keywords "essay help" using Google Search. The results include actual "pay us, and we will write the essay for you sites." It is completely legal to hire someone to write for you. Ghostwriting, being aptly named, is a valuable service with many legitimate uses; but, it has a dark side. The Ghostwriting Industry needs to be regulated. These services, while legal, are not always ethical in their search for paying customers. Other "legal" products are required to post "warnings" concerning dangers in use or content. Ultimately, the entire educational exchange between teachers and students is damaged from the unethical use of ghostwriting services. Why, out of all the issues confronting the educational system, would the cry to regulate ghostwriters draw consideration? This paper answers that question.

It is easy for one to argue that the advertising strategy used by Ghostwriting websites are as shady as turning in one of their essays for a grade. The statements made to lure customers are ridiculous. They claim to be plagiarism free, and technically that's true because nothing is stolen. Still, the student is "using some else's work and claiming it as his own." Acquired legally? Yes. Ethical? Not at all. Even more disturbing is how these companies make the writing process seem extremely difficult and then promise to "magically" create a perfect essay in a few hours. Apparently these works of academic art are magically written by a Ph.D. or some other overly qualified person! It might be understandable to give a student duped into thinking it is proper to turn in assignments this way, the first time only.

Ghostwriting companies should be forced to write transparent disclaimers warning students of the dangers of submitting an essay written by someone else. Other industries do give warnings, some forced and others as a public service. Sellers of cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, and other legal but potentially harmful products and services do it. The entertainment industry warns of potentially offensive content. These warnings alert the unaware and say "I told you so" to those choosing to ignore.

It is cliche to say "we live in a fasted paced world." Saving time is just one of many legal and ethical reasons for hiring a ghostwriter. Wanting to skip academic course work is not one of them. It is a complete waste of time for the most important people in education. Teachers take great care in reading, analyzing, and responding to student work. Relevant feedback is critical to teaching and learning. Students use feedback to improve, and teachers use student work to learn which teaching methods are effective in delivering education. Anything so potentially harmful to so many people needs to be regulated.

The unethical use of ghostwriters damages the entire educational process proving that this form of falsification is a major issue. Something must be done to protect us all from unscrupulous use of a valuable service. The entire Ghostwriting Industry needs to be on notice. It has a very real dark side where slick advertising promotes unethical behavior from our students. At the very least, it burns valuable time; but more than that, it hurts the teacher-student relationship. And what about these highly educated persons that are doing the actual writing? Don't they care? Not all is lost, for there are a few trustworthy digital writing tools available over the Internet. Look for those that give timely advice. The real magic in writing essays is in the student that does the writing.


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Biographical

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A Biographical Narrative is telling a story about a person's life. An effective writing strategy is to make an important point or observation through storytelling. For example, you might use examples of a person's life to tell a story that delivers the message "RoughDraftApp is an effective writing tool."

One Man's Journey To Writing Perfect Essays

Getting a failing grade on any essay is tough to swallow; but, what if a week and all-nighter are the investment? Obviously it hurts. Fortunately, there is a life lesson about a guy named Nick that struggles to pass any class that requires writing essays. He studies hard, knows the topic details, but doesn't prove it in writing. All this changes when he finds help from an unlikely source, an app that installs on his phone. RoughDraftApp is an effective writing tool. Nick, who eventually went on to study at a major college, learned to complete writing assignments faster, write wherever he was, and specialize in producing well-organized essays. His story is inspiring. He went from frustrated high school junior to a college honor student just by learning to use RoughDraftApp, a tool he still uses today.

Nick would sit, frozen, at his computer with Google Docs open, music blasting, and detailed handwritten notes at hand. Once he found RoughDraftApp, he wrote like he was on fire. His grades move from C's to A's, and he spends much more time with a girlfriend sharing his newly discovered passion for writing.

For Nick, the most effective feature of RoughDraftApp is getting the exact advice he needs when he needs it. All he has to do is click on the Strategy buttons and review the advice for the exact sentence on his screen. His girlfriend likes the way she just clicks the "Create RoughDraft" button and gets the essay's rough draft ready to copy and paste into a word processing program. The couple enjoys quickly completing writing assignments together, especially when around town.

Nick's story becomes relevant after he starts productively writing wherever he was at the time. RoughDraftApp fires-up everywhere. He writes using his phone while waiting in the doctor's office, and at the coffee shop using the tablet his girlfriend bought him for his birthday. Sometimes, Nick's favorite place to write is his room with music blasting. It didn't matter where he got his writing done because it was always well-organized.

Now Nick pauses to reflect back to days when he freezes in front of a computer screen being afraid to start writing an essay. He didn't know where to begin, but even more terrifying was the thought of sounding "stupid" as his ideas bounced around in no particular order. Nick feels relieved when he snaps back to the present and goes back to writing. RoughDraftApp specializes in helping writers produce well-organized essays. The interactive template makes it happen. Nick enjoys knowing what to write next as he moves along, and, when he gets stuck, he hits one of the nearby links to get instantaneous advice. The template even organizes sentence types, further enhancing the organization of the essay. The story ends with Nick starting to write his master's thesis without even opening RoughDraftApp. But it is there, on his phone "just in case."

There is little doubt that Nick nailed that master's thesis. RoughDraftApp trained him well. That once struggling teenage essay writer can now quickly, freely, produce well-organized essays. Nick's story is inspiring for those struggling. Investing too much time writing failing essays. With RoughDraftApp, failure is not a possibility.


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Business

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Business Letter (writing to get what you want):

I recommend that the company purchase a license to use RoughDraftApp and make it available to all employees. RoughDraftApp is an effective writing tool. Our staff will complete written communications faster, write while traveling, and specialize in producing well-organized reports. This writing program will help our bottom line as communications between staff, suppliers, and clients will improve.

The company would benefit by improving the writing skills of all employees especially those from foreign countries where English is not the first language. RoughDraftApp will speed up written communications. There is an interactive template to guide employees through the writing process. This guide leads the writer to each sentence and offers advice on writing effectively. Once the sentences are complete, they are put together creating a written communication that can be copied and sent out or then formatted in something more formal. Also, our employees will be able to use this tool away from the office.

RoughDraftApp operates on phones and tablets just like any other app. As a result, Staff will be able to write while traveling. The company will be more productive as there will be less downtime when staff is away from the office. Staff will be able to send more detailed reports sooner after attending off-site meetings. Our supplier liaison based overseas will be able to report quickly on activities over there. Concerns over working away from the office will be silent because communications will more often be well-organized, more effective.

Company profits will increase as the staff improves efficiency, and decisions resulting from complete facts. RoughDraftApp specializes in helping writers produce well-organized essays. The interactive template makes it happen. Staff will be prompted to express clear, complete information and ideas. This process enhances critical think skills because effective writing requires clear thinking. The template even organizes sentence types, further enhancing the organization quality of communication. The result will be an increase of profits as costs drop and sales increase.

I am confident the company will benefit from making RoughDraftApp a tool in our communications process. Staff will write faster, travel more efficiently, and reporting will improve. The investment required is minimal per user, and we will only purchase what is needed. Please advise on how we will move forward with RoughDraftApp.


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Figurative Language

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Figurative Language is a tool to make writing more interesting and easier to read. That said, it has to be used correctly.


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Alliteration

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Alliteration: Stylistic writing device that groups together multiple words with common first consonant sound. Alliterations depend on sounds, not letters. Tongue twisters are fun Alliterations.

Strategy: In general, Alliterations are used to enhance the description of something that will help the reader remember facts, spelling, brand names, etc...

Example 1
Text: Write right rocking RoughDraftApp right, right?
Meaning: Write correctly by using RoughDraft the right way, don't you agree?

Example 2
Text: Best Buy, American Airlines, PayPal
Meaning: enhancing recognition of business names and purpose


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Cliche

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Cliche: Language with the ability to think for your readers as they are ingrained deeply in the language. Cliches are useful for quick thoughts.

Strategy: Avoid overuse. Cliches will bore your reader due to the fact he has seen it before many times. Try to find an original use of a cliche if one is used.

Example 1
Metaphors: the apple does not fall far from the tree, to turn a blind eye, blood is thicker than water, read between the lines

Example 2
Simile: like an ace in the hole, as black as coal, like the blind leading the blind

Example 3
Hyperbole: at the speed of light, lasted an eternity, all is fair in love and war


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Hyperbole

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Hyperbole: Language involving an exaggerating ideas to create emphasis that are most often a ridiculous comparison to emphasize an actual situation.

Strategy: In general, Hyperboles are used to create extra stress and drama to show added importance by drawing attention to using wild overstatement.

Example 1
Text: He takes a million years to write an essay.
Meaning: It takes him a very long time to write an essay.

Example 2
Text: She is drowning in his tears.
Meaning: She can't escape feeling very sad.


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Idiom

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Idiomatic expression: Language peculiar to a group of people.

Strategy: In general, writers should avoid using idiomatic expressions in formal essays. That said, idiomatic expressions, when used properly, will demonstrate a touch of added expertise. The key is to know the idiomatic expressions your audience will most likely understand and use them sparingly. For example, if the audience is students and teachers then the idiom "writer's block" (writer is struggling to get started) should be safe to use.

Example
Audience: students and teachers
Text: RoughDraftApp is the perfect tool to eliminate writers block mainly because writers often know what to write just not how and where in the essay to place the ideas and information.
Idiomatic expression: to eliminate writers block


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Metaphor

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Metaphor: Language making a comparison between two things or objects that are clearly different from each other but still have a few common characteristics.

Strategy: In general, Metaphors are used to show a person, place, thing, or action as being another (different) person, place, thing, or an action; however, those compared persons, places, things, or actions are actually very different.

Example
Text: By following the interactive template of RoughDraftApp, the writer receives answers and advice from a live teacher.
Metaphor: comparing the interactive template to a live teacher.


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Onomatopoeia

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Onomatopoeia: Language imitating the natural sounds of something

Strategy: In general, Onomatopoeia are used to make descriptions more expressive and interesting by creating mimicking sound effects.

Examples
Machines: click, clank
Water: drip, drizzle, sprinkle, gush
Humans: blurt, yell, whisper, chatter, giggle
Animals: Meow, Moo, Neigh, Oink, Baa
Loud Sounds: Boom, Bang, Bong, Ring
Keyboards: click, beep


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Personification

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Personification: Language giving a thing, an idea, or an animal human attributes

Strategy: In general, Personifications give deeper meaning to ideas, especially in literary works. Writers rely on personification to bring inanimate things to life, because it is easier for readers to relate to something that possesses human traits.

Example 1
Text: Watch my bulldog. It is doing beautifully.
Meaning: Look at my bulldog because it is doing something very well.

Example 2
Text: The computer screams when I'm gaming.
Meaning: The computer operates very fast when I'm using it to play games.

Example 3
Text: That idea flew way over my head.
Meaning: I did not understand the comment or proposal.


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Simile

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Simile: Language using words "like" or "as" to make a direct comparison by drawing resemblance of different things.

Strategy: In general, similes offer variety in thinking and new perspectives, making it easier for readers to understand demanding or difficult subject matter in an essay. Use similes to draw examples from readers' prior knowledge to explain new concepts or ideas in your essay.

Example 1
Text: RoughDraftApp is like a teacher sitting with you.
Meaning: RoughDraftApp immediate advice or assistance.

Example 2
Text: The interactive template operates like a navigation system.
Meaning: The interactive template gives you directions.

Example 3
Text: By making that controversial move to win the game, coach proved to be crazy as a fox.


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Analogy

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An analogy is a way of explaining something new by comparing it to something completely different but familiar to the people learning the information. A metaphor (unlike things have something in common) or a simile (two unlike things are compared) that explain something new are an analogy.

For educators, an analogy is used to teach something new by comparison using language that the students understand.

For writers, an analogy is used to explain something new by comparison using language that the readers understand.

Example 1
RoughDraftApp is like a backpack because it carries the digital equivalent of a pad of paper, pen, and class notes.

Example 2
Your digital device is the desk and RoughDraftApp are your pad of paper, pen, and class notes.


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Quick Start

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Ok. You didn't get an app to figure out how to use it. If you are like me opening up a new game, the first button pushed is "Play." So let's "Play".

The quickest way to get started is:
1. Press "Start Writing" button
2. Press "Writing Form" button
3. "Play" (being writing).

It's that simple. Now just follow the sentences as they come up. Use "Strategy" buttons as needed.

Not So Quick but Equally Effective Way:
Use RoughDraftApp after completing "prewriting" activities. You know, those things teachers tell you to do before writing begins. You will most likely be spending less time writing the essay and more time doing the research. All the ideally placed "Strategy" buttons will keep you on track and give advice. After all, there is value in following the academic writing process.


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